Sausages -

Of the best quality, consist essentially of minced prime fresh meat, either beef or pork, or both, cured, spiced, stuffed into casings and, usually, smoked.

With few exceptions, all Sausages, other than those for immediate disposal, should be kept, preferably hung, in a cool dry dark place. To be enjoyed at their best, they should, ordinarily, be sold and consumed as soon as possible after their full preparation is completed.

In general manufacture, the coarsely chopped meat is first mixed with sugar, salt and a little saltpetre and allowed to rest or "cure" for a few days. Then comes, in most varieties, a second finer mincing, next the addition of spices or herbs, or both, and finally filling into beef, sheep or hog casings and smoking - the last-named being identical in process with that for HAM (which see) except that the time required is shorter.

Cheaper grades contain a considerable percentage of potato flour, rice, bread or cracker meal, or other similar fillers, and the meat consists largely of "trimmings" - cheek meat, etc. - coloring matter being frequently employed to obtain the red hue desired.

The casings are generally the thoroughly cleaned intestines of steers, sheep and hogs. The domestic supply is supplemented by importations from England, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Holland and Turkey.

Some varieties of sausage are eaten as purchased, without additional cooking - often nearly raw; others are cooked for varying periods before serving. It is generally better to err on the side of over than under cooking, as there is always the danger of TRICHINAE in pork that has not been thoroughly permeated by strong heat (see article on TRICHINAE), unless the salting is especially heavy.

As Sausages, like mincemeat and other similar articles, are always open to suspicion on the part of inquiring-minded housewives, it is wisest to handle only those made by concerns with thoroughly established reputations for cleanliness and wholesomeness of preparation.

The following list of the most popular varieties names the principal ingredients, etc., of their general manufacture in high class establishments, but customs and formulas vary widely. The accompanying Color Page shows, in reduced size, Bologna, Cervelat, FRANKFURTERS, head cheese, MORTADELLI and Salami.

beef SAUSAGE: chiefly lean beef, seasoning, etc. Stuffed in sheep or narrow hog casings, or retailed as "beef Sausage meat."

BLOOD SAUSAGE or Blood Wurst: principally fat pork cut into small dice, together with some finely minced lean pork, beef or hog blood and spices, stuffed into beef middle casings, with three or four pieces of hog tongue added to each sausage, and boiled. The dark color is due to the blood content.

Bologna SAUSAGE: named from the town of Bologna, Italy, though the imported variety now comes principally from Germany. It usually consists of equal parts of lean beef and pork, minced fine, spiced, stuffed into beef middle casings, twelve to fourteen inches long - straight or in rings - and smoked red. The best native Bologna is made of bacon, veal and pork fat, chopped fine and flavored with garlic and herbs.

BOUDIN BLANC or White Sausage: finely minced lean and fat pork, roasted onions, bread crumbs (soaked in cream), spices and egg yolks, stuffed into narrow hog casings. They should be kept in salt water until sold to preserve their white color. The brine must be renewed every two or three days.

BOULOGNE SAUSAGE or Saucisse de Boulogne: finely minced lean beef and clear salt bacon, spiced, stuffed into medium-wide beef casings about twelve to fourteen inches long, dried and smoked.

BRUSSELS "MOSAIC" SAUSAGE: a very showy item. Its basis is sausage meat of about two-thirds fat pork and one-third beef, chopped medium small, spiced and filled into hog or beef bladders, five or six inches in diameter and six or seven inches long, until about three-quarters full. Square strips of red boiled ox-tongue, coated with pork fat, and good colored FRANKFURTERS, liver Sausages, etc., are then pushed into the mixture, all parallel to each other. The whole is carefully strung, smoked lightly, boiled and again smoked, preferably with juniper brush added to the fire.

Cervelat: principally equal quantities of minced beef and pork with some additional dices of fat, and spices. Filled into beef casings and smoked.

CHITTERLING: a French sausage from pig intestines. They are thoroughly cleaned, pickled for several hours in herb-flavored brine, cut into very small pieces, stuffed into larger intestines and cooked. They are then placed in brine again for three weeks or so and finally smoked or placed in vinegar.

FRANKFORT Sausages or "FRANKFURTERS": if of fine quality, consist of about one-quarter lean beef and three-quarters lean pork shoulder, spiced, stuffed into sheep or narrow hog casings and well smoked. They should not be kept long, as they readily become dry and unpalatable. In Frankfort, Germany, the original place of manufacture, only pork is used, the general formula resembling that for Frankfort pork Sausage, following.

FRANKFORT pork SAUSAGE: coarse-chopped lean and fat pork and ham, flavored with spices, garlic and shallots, stuffed into salted hog casings, about fifteen inches long, and smoked to a reddish yellow.

FRANKFURTERS. See Frankfort Sausages.

FRICADELLEN: trimmings of lean pork or other meat, chopped moderately fine, mixed with flour paste, spiced, shaped into cakes of two to three ounces each, and wrapped in hog caul. They are intended for frying in butter.

Goose liver SAUSAGE: principally finely minced parboiled calf's liver and pork, roasted in butter and spiced, containing pieces of Goose liver about one inch square. Filled into very wide hog casings.

Truffle and Goose liver Sausage is made in a similar manner, with the addition of small dice of truffles and red salt tongue.

HAM, chicken AND tongue SAUSAGE: principally pork, with the addition of varying quantities of veal, ox-tongue and chicken, all minced very fine. The casings are generally smoked or colored red.

head cheese: boiled calf's or pig's feet, cut either into moderate-sized dice or into long thin strips, tongues (whole or cut), and a variety of other items - salted hearts, cheek meat, ham trimmings, pig's snouts or ears, etc. - all cooked, skinned and cut into pieces of about three-quarters-inch square, flavored with spices, onions and herbs. Stuffed into hog's stomachs and pressed under boards after cooking. A cut head cheese, if well made, is a good ornament for show windows.

liver SAUSAGE: if of good quality, consists of liver and lean pork, etc., with spices, onions and herbs.

LYONNAISE SAUSAGE: principally pork - four parts of finely minced lean and one or two parts of fat, in small dice - some finely minced beef, spices, as ginger and mace, and leeks. Stuffed into well salted beef casings, about eighteen inches long, and smoked to a rich red.

METT SAUSAGE or Dutch Mett: minced lean beef and moderately fat pork, filled into beef casings, dried and smoked. It is generally made from the remnants after preparing Cervelat or Salami. A finer variety is known as Brunswick or Thuringian Mett.

MORTADELLI (Italian): principally minced pork and beef, some raw and some boiled or pickled, together with dice of raw pork fat, strips of boiled pickled pig's tongue, chopped sardines and pistachio nuts, spices and a little rum or other spirits, filled into beef casings twelve to sixteen inches long or into large narrow calf bladders, tied around with strings, dried and smoked until red - using, preferably, beech or oak shavings mixed with juniper brush.

PARISIAN Sausages or Saucisses Parisiennes: fat shoulder pork, chopped moderately fine, stuffed into medium sized hog casings, twisted into pairs about four inches long and smoked.

pork Sausages: finely minced lean fresh pork trimmings, with spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cloves, mace, etc., and herbs as sage or thyme. For fancy trade, they are generally stuffed into sheep casings in very small links; for regular trade, small hog casings are employed. The mixture is also retailed in muslin bags as "sausage meat."

Smoked pork Sausage is made in the same way but frequently contains a certain proportion of beef and a considerable percentage of salt pork. The links, after drying, are smoked for one and one-half to two hours.

ROLLEPOHSE or George Sausage: finely minced rather fat beef and bacon, spiced, filled into bags of beef caul about four inches wide and six inches long and cooked. After cooking they are packed in earthenware jars and steeped for several days in a mixture of vinegar and broth, flavored with bay leaves, sliced lemons, etc.

Salami (Italian): about two-thirds fat pork, in small dice, and one-third finely minced lean beef, moistened with red wine, flavored with garlic, shallots, cloves, etc., stuffed into beef casings, previously soaked in vinegar, and made into a chain of small, nearly round Sausages. The Sausages are later put in brine for several hours, then hung for about two weeks and finally washed and dipped in lukewarm mutton tallow - the last-named process to prevent drying out. Hung in proper temperature, they will keep for years.

Salami de Verona is similar to Italian Salami, but generally contains a larger proportion of beef, chopped to the same size as the pork, and with brandy in place of wine.

Salami (Hungarian): four-fifths moderately lean pork and one-fifth fat bacon, coarsley chopped, flavored with paprika, etc., stuffed into narrow beef casings, steeped in brine for ten days to two weeks, dried and smoked.

SARDELLE Sausages: principally lean pork, together with some bacon and anchovies (Sardelles), spiced, stuffed into narrow hog or wide sheep casings and twisted off in pairs into small Sausages, weighing about two ounces each, and smoked to a deep yellow. They should be handled in small quantities only, as they do not keep in good condition for longer than three or four days.

SUMMER SAUSAGE: equal parts of finely minced lean beef, lean pork and fat pork, flavored with spices and sometimes with garlic, etc., shaped into large balls and allowed to cure for three or four days, stuffed into beef middle casings and hung up to dry for one or two weeks, then smoked red and hung for two to three months to harden. If this sausage becomes white in keeping, it should be rubbed with a cloth saturated with fat or olive oil.

A good deal of Summer Sausage, chopped coarser, is sold as "Salami."

THURINGIAN RED SAUSAGE: principally, moderately fat pork; also scraped pig-skin, salted tongue or heart, liver and lungs, etc., and fresh blood, flavored with spices. Filled into wide hog casings, cooked and smoked, with a considerable proportion of juniper brush added to the smokehouse fire.

tongue SAUSAGE: chiefly tongue in small pieces, with the addition of some pork, chopped to a paste.

VIENNA Sausages or Wienerwursts: finely minced lean beef and fat pork, flavored with coriander, mace, lemon peel, etc., and sometimes garlic and shallots, stuffed into sheep casings and twisted off into Sausages about three and a half to five ounces each, dried and smoked. They should be of a chestnut brown color. A hot Vienna sausage should break open when bent and show plenty of juice.

WESTPHALIAN SAUSAGE: generally equal quantities of lean beef and fat pork in very small dice, stuffed into narrow hog casings and smoked. If hung in a dry, airy place, they will keep good for a long time.

WIENERWURSTS. See Vienna Sausages.

Arround Sausages in The Grocer's Encyclopedia

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