Pork


Pork -

The title "pork" covers all the flesh, fresh or cured, of pigs or swine, but in ordinary use it is not applied to the flesh when smoked, as ham and BACON. This is another example of the curious changes that have occurred in the English language, for "BACON" was formerly applied to all meat from the pig, of any part and whether fresh, salted or smoked!

A general division of the carcass is shown in the accompanying diagram from a Bulletin published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

The Back Cut designated is almost clear fat and is used for salting and pickling, or "corning." The Middle Cut and Belly are generally used for BACON, but also for salting, the former being sometimes termed "lean ends" salt pork. From the Ribs and Loin (beneath the Back Cut) are obtained "spare ribs," eaten both fresh and corned; "chops" and "roasting pieces." The Tenderloin proper is a comparatively lean and very small strip of meat lying under the bones of the Loin and usually weighing a fraction of a pound.

The hams and Shoulders are generally cured, but are also sold fresh as "pork steak" and "fresh pork," etc. The Shoulder is in the South frequently sold entire, dry-salted - being then known to many in the trade as the "English shoulder." Throughout other parts of the country it is generally cut into two parts - the "picnic," or "smoked shoulder" (formerly styled "Picnic" or "California Ham") and the "boneless butt" or "regular butt." The "picnic shoulder," plain cured or cured and smoked, is very popular because of its conveniently small size.

The fat trimmed off the hams and shoulders, may be rendered for lard or it may go, with all other trimmings, into the manufacture of sausages.

The leaf fat which lies around the kidneys furnishes the finest quality lard, called "leaf lard" in many localities.

"Larding pork" is very fat pork, from the loin and ribs, cured and preserved with ordinary cooking salt.

The head, feet and tails are eaten both fresh and pickled.

The annual consumption of pork is enormous, attributable partly to its food value, which is enhanced for use in cold and temperate climates by its heating properties, apig artly to the fact that it lends itself more acceptably to "curing" than any other form of animal food.

The United States is a long way in the lead as a pork-producer, consuming a high per capita amount at home and shipping vast quantities to Europe and other parts of the world, both for private consumption and for the commissary departments of armies and navies. Ireland is the next largest producer of cured pork.

pork should be smooth and cool to the touch. If it feels clammy and looks flabby, it is not fresh - and therefore not desirable. If it has many enlarged glands or kernels in the fat or fine black spots in the belly strips, it may generally be regarded as from a diseased animal, and therefore unfit for human consumption.

It should always be thoroughly cooked before eating (see TRICHINAE).

Following are the requirements of the Chicago Board of Trade concerning the cutting and packing of pork:

CUT MEATS

STANDARD SHOULDERS, should be cut as close as possible to the back part of the fore-arm joint, without exposing the knuckle and butted off square on top; neckbone and short ribs taken out, neck squared off, blood vein lifted and cut out, breast-flap trimmed off, and foot off on or above the knee joint.

SKINNED SHOULDERS, should be cut and trimmed in all respects like the New York Shoulder (see PICKLED MEATS, following), except that in addition the skin should be taken off to the shank and the fat trimmed off within half an inch of the lean.

BLADED SHOULDERS, should be cut the same as Standard Shoulders, except that the shoulder blade should be taken out and the corners rounded.

ROUGH SIDES, should be made by slitting the hog through or on one side of the backbone. An equal proportion of both sides must be delivered on sales to make them Standard.

SHORT CLEAR SIDES, should be cut reasonably square at each end, the backbone and ribs taken out and henchbone and breastbone sawed or cut down smooth and even with the face of the side. Feather of bladebone should not be removed and no incision or pocket should be made in the side.

EXTRA SHORT CLEAR SIDES, should be made the same as Short Clear, except that all the loin must be taken off the back.

SHORT RIB SIDES, should have the backbone taken out and henchbone and breastbone sawed or cut down smooth and even with the face of the side; feather of bladebone not to be removed and no incision or pocket to be made in the side.

LONG CLEAR SIDES, should be cut reasonably square at both the tail end and shoulder end; the neck taken off and smoothly trimmed; backbone, shoulder bones, and ribs taken out, and the leg bone and blade, henchbone and breastbone sawed off or cut down smooth and even with the face of the side.

EXTRA LONG CLEAR SIDES, should be cut and trimmed in all respects like the Long Clear, except that in addition all the loin should be neatly trimmed down to the fat.

SHORT CLEAR BACKS, should be made from the sides of smooth hogs, from which the bellies have been cut and backbone and ribs taken out, the lean left on, tailbone sawed off even with the face of the meat, and trimmed smooth and square on all edges.

LONG FAT BACKS, should be made from smooth, heavy, well-fatted hogs, the side to be cut through the center of the ribs, from the ham to and including the shoulder, all the lean taken out, trimmed smoothly and properly squared on all edges.

CUMBERLAND SIDES, should have the end from which the ham is taken cut square, the leg cut off below the knee joint, the shoulder ribs, neckbone, backbone and blood vein taken out, the breastbone sawed or cut down smooth and even with the face of the side, and should not be backstrapped or flanked.

LONG RIB SIDES, should be made the same as Cumberlands, except that the bladebone must be taken out and the leg cut off close to the breast.

BIRMINGHAM SIDES, should have the backbone, ribs and bladebone taken out, pocket piece cut out and pocket nicely rounded, knucklebone left in, and leg cut off close to the breast.

SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE SIDES, should be made the same as Birmingham, except the loin is taken out full to the top of shoulder blade, leaving only a thin strip of lean along the back, knuckle left in, and leg cut off close to the breast.

YORKSHIRE SIDES, should be made the same as Cumberland, with the ribs out.

IRISH CUT SIDES, should be made the same as Long Clears, with the knucklebone left in.

DUBLIN MIDDLES, should be cut from light, smooth hogs, and made the same as Cumberlands, except that the leg should be cut off close to the breast. The side must be thin.

WILTSHIRE SIDES, should be made from smooth hogs: the shoulder side and ham left together in one piece, the blade bone taken out, foot cut off, shoulder same as the Cumberland, hip-bone taken out, not to be backstrapped, belly trimmed up even and the leg of the ham cut off above the joint.

THREE RIB SHOULDERS, should be made from smooth, fat hogs, cut three ribs wide, squared at butt, and in all other respects the same as the Standard Shoulder.

PICKLED MEATS.

STANDARD SWEET PICKLED hams, should be cut short and well rounded at the butt, properly faced, shank cut off enough above the hock joint to expose the marrow, reasonably uniform in size, and to average, in lots, not to exceed sixteen pounds each, with no ham less than twelve pounds, and none over twenty pounds. Three hundred pounds of block weight shall be packed in each tierce, with twenty-two pounds of salt, three quarts of good syrup, and twelve ounces of saltpetre and the tierces filled with water; or tierces to be filled with sweet pickle, made in accordance with the standard given.

NEW YORK SHOULDERS, should be made from small, smooth hogs, shank cut off one inch above the knee joint, butted about one inch from the bladebone, neck and breast flap taken off, trimmed close and smooth, reasonably uniform in size, and to average, in lots, not to exceed fourteen pounds. Three hundred pounds, block weight, shall be packed in each tierce, with pickle the same as for hams.

BOSTON SHOULDERS, should be made from medium-sized, smooth, fat hogs, shank cut off about one inch above the knee joint, and butt cut off about two inches above the second knuckle and slightly rounded, neck cut square and breast flap taken off, trimmed close and smooth, and not to exceed twelve pounds average. Three hundred pounds block weight, shall be packed in each tierce, with pickle the same as for hams.

SWEET PICKLED RIB BELLIES, should be made from nice, smooth hogs, well cut and trimmed, to average, in lots, not to exceed fourteen pounds. Three hundred pounds, block weight, shall be packed in each tierce, with pickle the same as for hams.

SWEET PICKLE CLEAR BELLIES, should be cut and packed, the same as Sweet Pickled Rib Bellies, except that all the bone should be removed.

DRY SALTED RIB BELLIES, should be well cut and trimmed. No bellies that are coarse, bruised, soft or unsound shall be accepted.

DRY SALTED CLEAR BELLIES, should be cut, trimmed and selected the same as Dry Salted Rib Bellies, except that all the bone should be removed.

BARRELED pork.

STANDARD MESS pork, should be made from sides of well-fatted hogs, split through, or on one side of the backbone, equal proportions of both sides, cut into strips of reasonably uniform width, properly flanked and not backstrapped.

Each barrel must contain, between October 1 and the last day of February, inclusive, one hundred and ninety pounds of green meat, numbering not more than sixteen pieces, including the regular proportion of flank and shoulder cuts, placed four layers on edge without excessive crowding or bruising, together with not less than forty pounds of coarse salt, the barrel being filled with brine of full strength; or fifty-five pounds of salt, the barrel being filled with cold water.

PRIME MESS pork, should be made from the shoulders and sides of hogs weighing from one hundred to one hundred and seventy-five pounds, net, cut as nearly as practicable into square pieces of four pounds each; the shank of the shoulder to be cut off close to the breast.

Each barrel must contain one hundred and ninety pounds of green meat, in the proportion of twenty pieces of shoulder to thirty pieces of side cuts, properly packed with not less than twenty pounds of coarse salt, the barrel being filled with brine of full strength; or, thirty-five pounds of salt, the barrel being filled with water. Each barrel shall also contain twelve ounces of saltpetre.

EXTRA PRIME pork, should be made from heavy untrimmed shoulders, cut into three pieces, the leg cut off close to the breast, and in all other respects cut, selected and packed as mess pork.

LIGHT MESS pork, should be made from the sides of reasonably well-fatted hogs; in all other respects to be cut, selected and packed the same as mess pork, except that as many as twenty-two pieces may be put into each barrel.

BACK pork, should be made from the backs of well-fatted hogs, after the bellies have been taken off, cut into pieces of about six pounds each; in all other respects to be cut, selected and packed in the same manner as mess pork.

EXTRA SHOULDER pork, should be made from heavy trimmed shoulders, cut into three pieces, the leg to be cut off close to the breast; in all other respects to be cut, selected and packed in the same manner as mess pork.

EXTRA CLEAR pork, should be made from the sides of extra heavy, well-fatted hogs, the backbone and ribs taken out and the number of pieces in each barrel not to exceed fourteen; in all other respects to be cut, selected and packed in the same manner as mess pork.

CLEAR pork, should be made from the sides of extra heavy, well-fatted hogs, the backbone and half the rib next the backbone to be taken out, and the number of pieces in each barrel not to exceed fourteen; in all other respects to be cut, selected and packed in the same manner as mess pork.

CLEAR BACK pork, should be made from the backs of heavy, well-fatted hogs, after the bellies have been taken off and the backbone and ribs have been taken out, cut into pieces of about six pounds each, in other respects packed as mess pork.

See also articles on BACON, HAM and SMOKED MEATS and Color Page of SMOKED MEATS opposite 292.


Arround Pork in The Grocer's Encyclopedia


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