Milk


Milk -

The value of milk as an article of food is clearly shown by the fact that it is sufficient to support, and to increase the growth of, the young of every species of mammalia. Examined by a microscope, it is seen as a transparent fluid in which float numbers of extremely minute transparent globules, consisting of fat surrounded by an albuminous envelope - its whitish, almost opaque appearance is an optical illusion.

Cow's milk - which is in this country exclusively understood by the general title of "milk," though in some parts of the world the milk of goats, ewes, mares and various other animals forms an important part of the human diet - varies in composition from 84% to 90% water and 10% to 16% "solids." The solids include from 2% to 7% fat, 2 1/2% to 4 1/2% Casein, 2% to 6% sugar, a small amount of albumin, and small quantities of "ash" or salts of various kinds.

The Fat when extracted is what we know as butter. The Casein is the main principle of Cheese. The sugar, or "lactose," has the same chemical composition as the ordinary sugar of commerce, but is not so sweet.

The law generally requires from 3% to 3 1/2% fat, and 8% to 9% of other solids. U. S. Standard milk contains not less than 8 1/2% of solids not fat, nor less than 3 1/4% of milk fat. Some milks will reach a fat percentage of 10%, but this is very unusual, the amount rarely exceeding 7%. The mixed milk of a large creamery seldom goes above 5% or below 3%.

Pasteurized milk is milk that has been heated - below boiling but to a degree sufficiently high to kill all pathogenic bacteria - and immediately cooled to 50° Fahr. or lower, to retard the development of any remaining organisms.

Sterilized milk is milk that has been heated to the temperature of boiling water, or higher, and held at that point long enough to kill all organisms present, or that has been repeatedly pasteurized.

Modified or Blended milk is milk modified in its composition so as to have a definite and stated percentage of one or more of its constituents.

cream is milk containing a large percentage of the fat globules, generally from 15% to 25%. It is obtained by centrifugal separation or by permitting the globules to rise by leaving the milk undisturbed for a number of hours.

Skim milk is that from which a part or all of the cream (fat) has been removed. U. S. Standard Skim milkcontains not less than 9 1/4% of milk solids.

"Sour milk" is the result of the formation of lactic acid by the development of lactic bacteria (see article on bacteria). In spite of the general prejudice against it, it is a thoroughly wholesome drink, for the lactic acid prevents for a time the action of other bacteria which would speedily bring about putrefaction. In Europe, milk is commonly soured in cellars for use, especially in summer, as a popular and refreshing beverage.

Buttermilk (which see) is the product that remains when butter is removed from milk or cream in the process of churning.


Arround Milk in The Grocer's Encyclopedia


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